Suggested Reading List
Edwin Blum and Paul Harvey: “The Color of Christ: The Son of God sand Saga of Race in America”
James Baldwin: “Collected Essays: Note of the Native Son /Nobody Knows My Name/The Fire Next Time/ No Name in the Street/ The Devil Finds Work”
Colson Whitehead: “The Underground Railroad”
Jesmym Ward: “The Fire This Time: A New Generation Speaks about Race”
Ralph Ellison: “Invisible Race”
Michelle Alexander: “The New Jim Crow”
Ta-Nehisi Coates: “Between the World and Me”
Bryan Stevenson: “Just Mercy”
Carter G. Woodson: “The Mis-Education of the Negro”
W.E.B. Dubois: “The Souls of Black Folks”
Ta-Nejisa Coates: “The Beautiful Struggle”
Laila Ibrahim: “Yellow Moore”
Cynthia Bond: “Ruby”
Henry Hampton and Steve Fayeer: “Voices of Freedom” (Companion to the acclaimed TV series “Eye on the Prize”)
James Oliver Horton and Lois E. Hilton: “Slavery and the Making of America”
Odetta, blues and folk singer, born.
Congressman Josiah Walls born
Author, sportswriter A.S. "Doc" Young born.
African Methodist Episcopal Zion church founded in New Bern, North Carolina.
Jean Toomer, author of Cane, born.
Jupiter Hammon becomes first published Black poet with his poem, "An Evening Thought".
Charter granted to the Georgia Infirmary, the first Black hospital.http://www.friendshipcharlotte.org/wp-admin/post.php?post=398&action=edit#
Madam C.J. Walker, businesswoman and first African American woman millionaire, born.
W.E. B. DuBois becomes the first African American elected to the National Institute of Arts and Letters.
South Carolina secedes from the Union.
Carter G. Woodson, "father of Black history", born.
Ratification of the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, prohibiting slavery and involuntary servitude except for crime, is announced
Teacher and Minister Henry Adams born.
Andrew Young nominated by President Jimmy Carter to be U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations.
William A. Hinton, first African American on Harvard Medical School faculty and developer of the Hinton test to detect syphilis, born.
John Mercer Langston, congressman and founder of Howard University Law Department, born
First African American servicewomen sworn into the United States Naval Reserves or Women Accepted for Voluntary Service (WAVES).
George F. Grant patents golf tee.
Jazz pianist McCoy Tyner born
Dr. Ralph J. Bunche becomes first Black awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
P.B.S. Pinchback of Louisiana becomes first African American governor in U.S.
Entertainer Sammy Davis Jr. born.
Doris “Dorie” Miller, U.S. Navy, shoots down four Japanese planes during attack on Pearl Harbor.
Richard Francis Jones becomes first African American certified in urology.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. organizes Birmingham bus boycott, marking the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement
The New York Amsterdam News is founded by James A. Anderson.
Frederick Douglass publishes first issue of North Star.
Rosa Parks is arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger on a city in Montgomery, Alabama
In Fort Scott, Kansas, Gordon Roger Alexander Buchanan Parks was born. Because of Parks’ vast intellectual, artistic, accomplishment he was described as a Renaissance Man. He accomplished many firsts including the distinction of being the first black photographer at Vogue, Glamour and Life Magazines. He was a documentary and fashion photographer, a film director, writer, producer, poet, novelist, essayist and a composer. Among his notable films are Shaft and The Learning Tree. Though largely self-taught he received over fifty honorary doctorates.
Freedom Riders attacked by white mob at bus station in McComb, Mississippi.
John Stanford died. He was the Superintendent of Seattle Public Schools from 1995 until his untimely death from leukemia in 1998. He was born in Darby, PA on the outskirts of Philadelphia and graduated from Penn State University. After 30 years of service in the U.S. Army he went to work as county manager in Fulton County, Georgia which included the city of Atlanta. In July 1995, after being recruited by the Seattle School Board he assumed the job of Superintendent becoming the first non-educator to fill this position.
Marjorie Joyner received a patent for a permanent wave machine that could wave the hair of both white and black people. U.S. patent 1,693,515. She was employed by the Madame C.J. Walker Cosmetic Company
Dr. Annjennette Sophie McFarlin became the first black American to receive a Doctorate in Rhetorical Studies from Washington State University. She was the second African American woman to receive a Doctorate in any subject matter from W.S.U. She wrote Black Reconstruction Orators and Their Orations 1865-1875 and has published many articles in scholarly journals.
In this speech given in New York City on this date, Marcus Garvey explains the objectives of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. The organization he believed would lead the worldwide movement toward black liberation.
Ronald Vernice Dellums was born in Oakland, California to Willa Terry Dellums and Vernie Dellums. He served as Mayor of Oakland from 2007-2011. He had previously served thirteen terms as a Member of the U.S. House of Representatives.
The Alice Freeman Memorial Institute better known as Palmer Memorial Institute was founded by Dr. Charlotte Hawkins Brown in Sedalia, NC near Greensboro. It was a school for upper class African Americans. It closed in 1971
Guion “Guy” Bluford, Jr. was born in Philadelphia, PA. Guion attended Overbrook Senior High School in Philadelphia, PA. While there a school counselor encouraged him to learn a trade since he was not college material. Unlike other young African-American men at his time who were given similar advice, Guy ignored it and forged his own path. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in aerospace engineering from Penn State in 1964. M.S. with distinction in aerospace engineering from the Air Force Institute of Tech in 1974 followed by a doctor of philosophy in aerospace engineering. He entered NASA’s training program and became an astronaut in August 1979.
Richard Johnson, a free black, granted 100 acres of land in Northhampton County for importing two persons.
Reverend Francis James Grimke, pastor of the Fifteenth Street Presbyterian Church of Washington, DC delivered a sermon in which he denounced those African Americans who called for conservatism, and accommodation. Grimke vowed that as long as African Americans were deprived of their full rights as citizens, they would continue to protest and agitate. His sermon was published in the Richmond (Virginia) Planet, a black weekly.
Roy Campanella was named most valuable player of the National Baseball League for the second time.
Black and white leaders in South Africa approved the new democracy constitution that gave blacks the vote and ended white minority rule.
Omega Psi Phi, Fraternity, Inc was founded by three Howard University juniors, Edgar Amos Love, Oscar James Cooper and Frank Coleman and their faculty adviser, Dr. Ernest Everett Just. Omega Psi Phi is the first predominant African American fraternity to be founded at a historically black university. Since it’s founding in 1911, Omega Psi Phi’s stated purpose has been to attract and build a strong and effective force of men dedicated to its cardinal principles of manhood, scholarship, perseverance and uplift.
Robert T. Greener, first black graduate of Harvard University, named professor of metaphysics at the University of South Carolina.
Nobel Prize in economics awarded to Professor Arthur Lewis of Princeton. He was the first black cited in a category other than peace. He had dual Saint Lucian and British Citizenships
Lydia Holmes, St. Augustine, Florida Patent No. 2,529,692 are the plans for several easily assembled wooden pull toys including a bird, a truck and a dog.
Pioneering surgeon, Dr. Daniel Hale Williams, becomes a member of the American College of surgeons. In 1893, he performed the first documented successful open heart surgery.
Howard Swanson an African American composer best known for his art songs based on the poetry of Langston Hughes and Paul Lawrence Dunbar died. He was born in Atlanta, GA in August 18, 1907. His musical career started after his family relocated to Cleveland, Ohio in 1916. In 1950, he produced his first significant composition “The Negro speaks of Rivers” a musical set to Langston Hughes famous poem of that name. His composition was performed in Carnegie Hall by Marian Anderson.
Spingarn Medal awarded to James Weldon Johnson, former U.S. consul in Venezuela and Nicaragua and NAACP executive secretary, for his work as an author, diplomat and leader.
President John F. Kennedy named Andrew T. Hatcher associate press secretary. Hatcher was the first black to hold this position. He was also a founder of 100 Black Men of American in 1963.
Roger Arliner Young died. She was the first black woman to receive a doctoral degree in zoology, PhD, from the University of Pennsylvania in 1940.
Otis M. Smith was the first African American justice on the Michigan Supreme Court and the General Counsel for General Motors. Smith graduated from law school at the Catholic University of America.
In an announcement known as “Dunmore’s Proclamation”, the first movement to free African Americans from slavery took place when the Royal Governor of Virginia offered freedom to any slave willing to fight for the British against the colonies in the American Revolution.
Anne Forrester Holloway was appointed U.S. Ambassador to Mali by President Jimmy Carter. She was the first African American woman to hold that post with an extensive background in development work in Africa. Forrester was more qualified than most U. S. Ambassadors to head an Embassy.
Barbara Mae Watson, businesswoman, lawyer, government executive and diplomat was born in New York City, New York. She received her B.A. from Barnard College in 1943. She served as an interviewer with the United Seaman’s Service in New York, owner and executive director of Barbara Watson Models and research assistant for the NY State Democratic Party.
Zina Garrison becomes the first African American player to win the junior singles tennis championship at Wimbledon, England.
Coleman Young was re-elected mayor of Detroit, Thurman L. Milner elected mayor of Hartford, CT, and James Chase elected mayor of Spokane Washington.
Charles C. Diggs, Jr. of Detroit elected Michigan’s first Black congressman. He was the first Chairman of the Congressional Black Caucus. Diggs was a staunch critic of the apartheid regime in South Africa
John E. Bruce “Reasons why the colored American should go to Africa” was first published in the Christian Recorder. As African Americans increasingly realized that Reconstruction would not protect them from violence and did not usher in permanent citizenship rights some black readers began to call for alternative approaches. Bruce was an American journalist, historian, writer, orator, civil rights activist and Pan African nationalist.
21 year-old Earl Lloyd became the first African American to play in a National Basketball Association (NBA) game when he took the floor for the Washington Capitols in Rochester, New York, scoring six points on Halloween night. Lloyd was inducted into the NBA Hall of fame in 2003. In his NBA career with the Washington Capitols (1950-1951), Syracuse Nationals (1952-1958) and Detroit Pistons (1958-1960), Earl averaged 8.4 points, 6.4 rebounds and 1.4 assists in 560 games over nine seasons.
32-year-old Muhammad Ali becomes the heavyweight champion of the world for the second time when he knocks out 25-year-old champ George Foreman in the eighth round of the “Rumble in the Jungle,” a match in Kinshasa, Zaire. Seven years before, Ali had lost his title when the government accused him of draft-dodging and the boxing commission took away his license. His victory in Zaire made him only the second dethroned champ in history to regain his belt.
Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act authorizes federal prosecution of all racially motivated hate crimes. Signed into law by President Barack Obama, it was conceived as a response to the murders of Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr., both in 1998. The measure expands the 1969 United States federal hate-crime law to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability.
Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 establishes 100:1 sentencing disparity between crack and powder cocaine.
Mahalia Jackson, legendary Gospel singer was born in New Orleans, LA.
Black American women participated in the Million Woman March in Philadelphia, focusing on health care, education, and self-help.
Jazz great Dizzy Gillespie was born in Cheraw, South Carolina (as John Birks Gillespie). He was a trumpet player, composer, band leader and one of the founding fathers of modern jazz, known for his trademark puffed cheeks and bent trumpet.
Dr. Martin Luther King and fifty others arrested at sit-in at Atlanta's Rich's Department Store.
At the 1968 Summer Olympics, Tommie Smith and John Carlos made headlines around the world by raising their black-gloved fists at the medal award ceremony. Both athletes wore black socks and no shoes on the podium to represent African-American poverty in the United States. It remains a symbolic moment in the history of the Black Power movement.
The Black Panther Party was founded by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California. The Black Panther Party's core practice was its armed citizens' patrols to monitor the behavior of officers of the Oakland Police Department, a practice later known as "copwatching", and challenge police brutality in the city. The Black Panther Party instituted a variety of community social programs, most extensively the Free Breakfast for Children Programs, to address issues like food injustice, and community health clinics for education and treatment of diseases including sickle cell anemia, tuberculosis, and later HIV/AIDS.
Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr., became the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. He donated the $54,000 in prize money to the Civil Rights movement.
Angela Davis captured in New York City. On October 13, 1970, FBI agents found her at a Howard Johnson Motor Lodge in New York City. On June 4, 1972, after 13 hours of deliberations, the all-white jury returned a verdict of not guilty. Davis had purchased several of the firearms used in the attack in a courtroom in Marin County, California.
Jazz pianist Theolonius Monk is born in Rocky Mount, NC. He was only one of 3 jazz musicians ever featured on the cover of Time magazine.
U.S. President Barack Obama is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
Toni Morrison was the first black American to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Fannie Lou Hamer born in Montgomery County, MS. Known for her civil rights activism, Fannie Lou Hamer was called "the spirit of the civil rights movement." Born a sharecropper, she worked from the age of six as a timekeeper on a cotton plantation. Later, she became involved in the Black Freedom Struggle and eventually moved on to become a field secretary for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).
Elgin Baylor announces his retirement from the Los Angeles Lakers. After 14 years in the NBA, Baylor had scored 23,149 points, the third highest in the league, and was the fifth highest career rebounder.
Frank Robinson was hired by the Cleveland Indians as baseball's first African American major league manager.
October 2, 1967. Thurgood Marshall was sworn in as the first African American associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. He served until 1991 and was known for opposing discrimination and the death penalty, and for championing free speech and civil liberties.
Colin Powell becomes Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.