Stay tuned for upcoming events/announcements from the African American Heritage Ministry.
Suggested Reading List
Edwin Blum and Paul Harvey: “The Color of Christ: The Son of God sand Saga of Race in America”
James Baldwin: “Collected Essays: Note of the Native Son /Nobody Knows My Name/The Fire Next Time/ No Name in the Street/ The Devil Finds Work”
Colson Whitehead: “The Underground Railroad”
Jesmym Ward: “The Fire This Time: A New Generation Speaks about Race”
Ralph Ellison: “Invisible Race”
Michelle Alexander: “The New Jim Crow”
Ta-Nehisi Coates: “Between the World and Me”
Bryan Stevenson: “Just Mercy”
Carter G. Woodson: “The Mis-Education of the Negro”
W.E.B. Dubois: “The Souls of Black Folks”
Ta-Nejisa Coates: “The Beautiful Struggle”
Laila Ibrahim: “Yellow Moore”
Cynthia Bond: “Ruby”
Henry Hampton and Steve Fayeer: “Voices of Freedom” (Companion to the acclaimed TV series “Eye on the Prize”)
James Oliver Horton and Lois E. Hilton: “Slavery and the Making of America”
Officers of NAACP arrested in Little Rock for failing to comply with a new financial disclosure ordinance. Parents of the Little Rock Nine are pressured to withdraw their children from the "white" school. They are threatened with death. Four loose their jobs. But they stand tall and none back down. Applying a tactic used across the South to attack the NAACP, the Little Rock city council orders the arrest of Daisy Bates and other NAACP leaders for refusing to turn over NAACP membership lists and financial data to a government agency (who will then pass it on to the White Citizens Council for economic retaliation).
Desegregation of the U.S. Armed Forces said to be complete.
Tommie Smith and John Carlos raise their fists to symbolize black power and unity after winning the gold and bronze medals, respectively, at the 1968 Summer Olympic Games.
The U.S. Supreme Court in Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education orders immediate desegregation of public schools, signaling the end of the "all deliberate speed" doctrine established in Brown II.
Josiah Henson, a slave who fled and arrived in Canada, is an author, abolitionist, minister and the inspiration behind the book Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Mahalia Jackson was a legendary Gospel singer in the 20th century, born on October 26, 1911 in New Orleans, Louisiana. Often referred to as the ‘Queen of Gospel’, Jackson was revered as an outstanding singer and civil rights activist. Her career spanned 45 years, and in that time, she recorded close to 30 music albums out of which she had almost a dozen Gold-plated sellers. Her fascination with the Blues stemmed from a deep-rooted need to be free and to promote the idea of freedom and hope.
Rosa Parks dies at age 92. Her solitary action spearheaded the Montgomery bus boycott in 1955. Her body lies in state in the Capitol Rotunda in Washington, D.C. before interment.
• Ten thousand students, led by Jackie Robinson, Harry Belfonte and A. Phillip Randolph, participated in the Youth March for Integrated Schools in Washington. Daisy Bates, head of the Arkansas chapter of the NAACP, and the nine students who integrated Little Rocks's Central High School were awarded the Spingarn Medal for their courage and leadership in the civil rights struggle.
FBI begins Communist Infiltration (COMINFIL) investigation of SCLC.
• On October 20, 1946, seventy-eight year old W.E.B Du Bois delivered the address at the closing session of the Southern Youth Legislature in Columbia South Carolina. Although this was one of his last major orations, he used the occasion to inspire his audience to continue the struggle for racial justice to which he had devoted his life.
Sixty leading Southern Blacks issued "Durham Manifesto" calling for fundamental changes in race relations after a Durham, North Carolina, meeting.
Thirteen blacks arrested for sitting in front of bus in Birmingham.
Dr. King and fifty others arrested at sit-in at Atlanta's Rich's Department Store.
Million Man March in Washington, D.C., co-initiated by Louis Farrakhan and James Bevel.
The Millions More Movement holds a march in Washington D.C. The march was open to men, women, and children and focused on creating lasting relationships between participating individuals, faith-based organizations, and community institutions. The movement only rallied a few thousand protesters and was seen as a disappointment.
Octavius Catto, a civil rights activist, is murdered during harassment of blacks on Election Day in Philadelphia.
Florida legislature votes to close any school if federal troops are sent to enforce integration.
A Federal judge in Harrisonburg, VA rules that public money may not be used for segregated private schools.
Judge Keith Bardwell refuses to officiate an interracial marriage in Louisiana.
Student demonstrations take place against integration of Washington, DC public schools.
Thurgood Marshall is sworn in, and becomes the first Black Supreme Court Justice, October 2, 1967.
Leflore County Supervisors cut off surplus food distribution in retaliation against a local voter registration drive.
U.S. Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black orders James Meredith admitted to Ole Miss.; he enrolls and a white riot ensues.
Emperor Jones, starring Paul Robeson as Brutus Jones is released by United Artists. It is Robeson's first starring movie role and the first major Hollywood production starring an African American with whites in supporting roles.
White Mob in Opelousas, Louisiana killed nearly 300 Blacks Over The Right To Vote.The event is also referred to as The Opelousas Riot by some historians. There is debate as to how many people were killed. While most Reconstruction-era violence was sparked by conflicts between black Republicans and white Democrats, the initial catalyst for the Massacre was the attempt by some Opelousas blacks to join a Democratic political group in the neighboring town of Washington.
A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., becomes the first African American member of the Federal Trade Commission. He was also appointed a federal district judge and U.S. Circuit Judge of the Third Circuit.
Voter registration activist and NAACP member Herbert Lee is shot and killed by a white state legislator in McComb, Mississippi.
James Meredith is barred from becoming the first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi.
The first National Negro Convention met in Philadelphia.
Booker T. Washington delivered the "Atlanta Compromise" speech at the Cotton States International Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia.
Vanessa L. Williams was crowned Miss America 1984 on September 17, 1983, becoming the first African American to win the title.
A commemorative stamp is issued by the U.S. Postal Service to honor Henry Ossawa Tanner, the first African American artist elected to the National Academy of Design
John Roy Lynch, congressman, soldier, and author was born in Concordia Parish, Louisiana on September 10, 1847 to Patrick Lynch, an Irishimmigrant and Catherine White, a slave. Lynch’s father died soon after his birth. Lynch and his mother were then traded to a plantation in Natchez, Mississippi. During the Civil War, Lynch became free when he fled the plantation and to serve as a cook for the 49th Illinois Volunteer Regiment.
The Civil Rights Act of 1957, Pub.L. 85–315, 71 Stat. 634, enacted September 9, 1957, primarily a voting rights bill, was the first federal civil rights legislation passed by the United States Congress since the Civil Rights Act of 1875. The Civil Rights Act of 1957 was also Congress's show of support for the Supreme Court's Brown decisions, the Brown v. Board of Education, which had eventually led to the integration, also called desegregation, of public schools.
Tennis champion, Althea Gibson, becomes the first Black athlete to win a US national tennis
On this day, Ghana becomes a free self-governing nation. This country will be the first of the British Commonwealth of Nations to be self-governing.
John Brown Russwurn, as an abolitionist, newspaper publisher, and colonizer of Liberia where he moved from the United States. He was born in Jamaica to an English father and enslaved mother. As a child he traveled to the United States with his father and received a formal education, becoming the first African American to graduate from Bowdoin College on September 6, 1826.
George Washington Murray (September 22, 1853 – April 21, 1926),born into slavery in South Carolina, became educated and worked as a teacher, farmer and politician. After serving as chairman of the Sumter County Republican Party, he was elected in the 1890s as a United States congressman from South Carolina on September 5, 1895.
Beyonce Knowles is an American singer, songwriter, and actress. Born and raised in Houston, Texas, she performed in various singing and dancing competitions as a child, and rose to fame in the late 1990s as lead singer of R&B girl-group Destiny's Child.
As 3,000 black people met in Atlanta, Georgia, on Labor Day weekend in 1970 to found the September 3, 1970 Congress of African People, both black self-determination and Pan-Africanism were central themes. While the Atlanta Pan-African summit was aimed at black people in the African diaspora, the gathering also embraced other oppressed peoples in the spirit of the Bandung Conference.
James Forten was an African American abolitionist and wealthy businessman in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Born free in the city, he became a sailmaker after the American Revolutionary War. Following an apprenticeship, he became the foreman and bought the sail loft when his boss retired. Based on equipment he himself had developed, he established a highly profitable business. It was located on the busy waterfront of the Delaware River, in an area now called Penn's Landing.
Ethel Waters died She was African-American singer and actress, born in Chester, Pa. As a singer, she is noted for her sultry, sophisticated, and dramatic version of the blues. After beginning in black vaudeville, she appeared in Harlem night clubs in the 1920s, sang with several bands, and made her Broadway debut (1927) in the all-black revue- Africana. In 1950 Waters became the first African-American woman to star in a television sitcom, the popular Beulah. In later years she toured with the Billy Graham crusade.